Wednesday, June 10, 2009


INDIAN GEOGRAPHY SPACE RELATIONSHIP- 7th largest country (AREA) Total Area = 32, 87, 263 Sq Km. (i) 3, 214 Km= North to South (ii) 2, 933 Km= West to East-Latitudinal extent 8°4'N to 37°6'N-Longitudinal extent 68°7'E to 97°25'E (For mainland) -Southern most point Indira point or Pygmalion Point (Andaman and Nicobar Island) 64°5'N-Indian Ocean is encircled by 46 countries (27 littoral including Australia, 7 island states and 12 landlocked countries).- Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar separates it from Sri Lanka-Coastline is 6,100 Km (along main land mass) and 7,516 Km
-Border DistancesChina India 4, 225 KmIndia Pakistan 4, 090 KmIndia Bangladesh 3, 910 Km India Myanmar 1, 450 Km Boundary Lines:Durand Line: Pakistan and AfghanistanMac Mohan Line: India and ChinaRadcliff Line: India and PakistanMaginot Line: France and GermanyHindenburg Line: Poland and GermanyOrder Niesse Line: Poland and Germany38th Parallel: North and South Korea 49th Parallel: USA and CanadaMannerheim Line: Finland and Russia

GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION-PreCambrian (600 Million Years ago)Archaean Gneissic and Granites. Igneous Activities, subsequent Metamorphism andfolding of the Arrival.Dharwarian Group (Bijawars)Igneous activities and intrusions.-Cambrian.Calcareous and Arenaceous deposits (Cuddapah and Vindhvanbasins).Gondwana system (carboniferous) permacarboniferous glaciation and extensive glaciofluvial deposition. -MidMesozoic.Fracturing of Gondwanaland, further uplift of Vindhyan sediments formation of western ghats.-Cretaceous.Lava flow and formation of Deccan Trap.-Tertiary.Collision of the Indian plate with Eurasian plate leading to Himalayan orogeny. -Oligocene.Himadri (Greater Himalayas)Rajmahal Garo gap or the Malda gap and upheaval of IndoGanga divide (Potwar Plateau).

INDIAN EARTHQUAKES-The intensity of the earthquake is measured by Modified Mercalli (MM) Scale which is expressed in Roman numerals from I to XII (I Feeble, XII Catastrophic). -Based on intensities of the earthquakes recorded on MM Scale, the Indian Standards Institute has divided India into 5 Seismic Zones: Zone I: Intensity V or below (Feeble)Zone II: Intensity VI (Strong) Zone III: Intensity VII (Very Strong)Zone IV: Intensity VIII (Destructive)Zone V: Intensity IX or above (Catastrophic)- Another popular scale is Richter scale.It has 9 divisions starting from 1 to 9 with feeblest at magnitude of 3.5 and most catastrophic known at a maximum of 8.9.-According to seismological studies, about 2/3 rd of India is earthquake prone.-The whole country is divided into three Seismological Zones:Himalayan Zone. Most prone (J and K, HP, Uttaranchal, Nepal Bihar Border, Bihar, North EasternStates). This zone is seismic due to plate tectonics. Himalayas have not yet attained isostatic equilibrium and are still rising.Indo Gangetic Zone. To the south of the Himalayan zone. Most earthquakes in this zone lie in 6 6.5 on Richter scale. This zone is called the zone of comparative intensity and it is more harmful because of high population density. Peninsular Zone Stable mass. It is the zone of minimum intensity.- Other isolated regions including reservoir induced seismicity e.g. Koyna, Idduki.

INDIAN VULCANICITY-At present no active volcanoes except on the Barren Island (A/N Islands).- The geological evidences show 6 areas of vulcanicity:1. Dharwar Basalt traces found in Dalma (Bihar)2. Cuddapah Cuddapah, Bijapur and Gwalior area.3. Vindhyan Malani (Jodhpur), Kirana (Punjab)4. Palaeozoic Kashmir, N.Punjab and Himachal Pradesh. 5. Mesozoic Raj Mahal Hills (Jharkhand), Abor Hills (Arunachal Pradesh).6. Cretaceous Lava flow and formation of Deccan Trap
HOT SPRINGS- Hot springs are associated with the area of volcanic activity (present or past).- Water from hot spring contains minerals viz. sulphur, borax etc.-Areas:J and K: Kashmir Valley, Vardhman Valley, Ladakh Valley, and Puga Valley. Himachal Pradesh: Kullu, Kangra and Sutlej Valley., Manikaran (near Kullu) and near Jwalamukhi (Kangra). Bihar/Jharkhand: Rajgir, Hazaribagh and Santhal ParganaMadhya Pradesh: Hoshangabad, Gwalior, and ChhindwaraGujarat: Tawa (Panch Mahal), Uni (Vadodara). Maharashtra: Thane Uttaranchal: Sahasradhar (Dehradun), Gangotri and Yamunotri.Rajasthan: Talbrich (Alwar), Naraini (Jaipur). Haryana: Sohana
PHYSICAL SURFACEPhysiographic distribution can be expressed in percentage of total area as follows: 10.6 % Mountains 18.5% Hills 27.7% Plateaus 43.2% PlainsIndian physiography can be divided into four major categories: 1. The Northern Mountains2. Great Plains3. Peninsular Uplands4. Indian Coasts and Islands
The Northern MountainsIt can be divided into Himalayas and the Purvanchal (North Eastern Highlands) Himalayas can further be divided into Western, Central and Eastern Regions, Western Himalayas consists of:Kashmir Himalayas include Karakoram, Laddakh Plateau, Kashmir Valley and Pir Panjal Range.Punjab Himalayas include Kangra, Lahul and Spiti (Longitudinal Valleys).Kumaon Himalayas include Gangotri, Yamunotri and Badrinath.- Central Himalayas consist of Nepal Himalayas. -Eastern Himalayas consist of Bhutan, Sikkim and Darjeeling Himalayas and Arunachal Pradesh except Tirap district, -All the three regions that is Western, Central and Eastern Himalayas can further be classified into:Siwaliks (outer Himalayas), Himachal (Lesser Himalayas), and Himadri (Greater Himalayas).
WESTERN HIMALAYAS 1.Siwaliks of Western Himalayas include Jammu Hills2.Himachal of Western Himalayas include Pir Panjal, Dhaula Dhar, Nag Tigga, Mussorie Range and flat structured Valley (Doons Dehradun, Kothri, Patli)3. Himadri (Bahirgiri) of Western Himalayas include snowbound ranges and glaciers of Jammu and Kashmir, Zauskar range having mounts Nanga Parbat, Mt. Kamet, Nanda Devi, Gurla Mandhata and passes Burzil and Zoji La (J and K) and Bara Lacha La and Shipki La(H.P).
CENTRAL HIMALAYAS 1.Siwaliks of Central Himalayas include Dhang, Dundwa and Churia Ghati2.Himachal of Central Himalayas include Mahabharat Range and Valley of Kathmandu. 3.Himadri of Central Himalayas include some of the highest peaks include: Mt. Everest, Dhaulagiri, Makalu, Manaslu, Annapurna.
EASTERN HIMALAYAS 1.Siwaliks of Eastern Himalayas include Miri, Abhor, Mishmi in Arunachal along with Gorges of Tista and Raidak2. Himachal is very indistinctly present in the eastern Himalayas.3. Himadri includes Bhutan, Sikkim, Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh. It also includes passes Nathu La and Jelep La- Siwaliks (6001500m): These are characterized by fault scarps, anticlinal Crests and Synclinal Hills. Himalayan Rivers have formed deep gorges in them, - Himachal or Lesser Himalayas (10004500m): Linear Longitudinal Ranges with Orthoclinal structural plan (steeper southern and gentler northern slopes) which gives it a Hogback type look. - Himadri or Greater Himalayas (45006100m): Orthoclinal structural plan.
BHANGER1. Trans Himalayas: Karakoram (abode of largest glaciers in the world Siachen, Baltoro, Biafo, Hisper and Rimu of Pakistan, It also contain ranges like Mt. K2 and Gasherbrum) and Ladakh range, uplands, Madhya Bharat Pathar, Bundelkhand uplands, Malwa plateau, Vindhyan scarpland and range. 2. Deccan Plateau including Satpura and Maikal Range, Maharashtra Plateau. Tejangana.Plateau and Karnataka Plateau (Malnad and Maidan). 3.Western Plateau: including Baghelkhand Plateau, Chhotanagpur Plateau and Garhjat Hills, Mahanadi Basin and Dandkarnya Region. 4.Eastern Ghats: including Khondlite, Charnokite, Madugula Konda Range, Cuddapah Kurnool Region, Nallamalai, Velikonda, Shevroy and Javadi Hills.
TERAIIt lies south of Bhabar and runs parallel to it - 2030 km wide -Composed of comparatively finer alluvium-Underground stream of the Bhabar reemerge on the surface and give birth to marshy areas.- Most part of the terai area is reclaimed for agriculture.5. Western Ghats this can be divided into regions lying north of 16°N and South of 16°N.
Indian Coasts and IslandsIt includes:1. Eastern Coastal Plains2. Western Coastal Plains3. Andaman and Nicobar Islands4. Lakshadweep Islands.
More on Great Plains:-The great plain extends for 3200 Km between the mouths of. Ganga and Indus all along the foot of the mountains with a width varying between 150 300 Km.-Great Plains are classical examples of an aggradational plain which resulted form an infilling of initial depression by the incessant work of the Himalayan rivers.- Generally the plain is recognized as consisting of 4 division each characterized by surface relief and known as Bhabar, Terai, Bhangar and the Khadar.- Marusthali i.e. desert proper: Arid Region.Rajasthan Bagar i.e. Semi Desert: Semi Arid Region Western Marusthali is land covered by shifting sand dunes locally known as the Dhrian. (To the south of Jaislmer, a number of playa lakes occur which are called Ranns and are characterized by centripetal drainage).Bagar contains salt soaked playa lakes locally known as Bagar is drained by a number of short streams originating from the Aravalli .Fertile tracts in Bagar are known as Rohi. Commonest type of dune in Thar U Shaped Parabolic Dunes.These are few simple longitudinal dunes (siefs) locally know as Bhits.Large numbers of depressions occupied by alkaline lakes are called Dands or Dhands.The altitude of the Punjab plain varies from 300m in the North to 200m in the South. Doab of 5 rivers in Punjab1. Sindh Sagar Doab Indus and Jhelum2. Chaj Doab Chenab and Jhelum3. Rechna Ravi and Chenab4. Bari Beas and Ravi5. Bist (Jalandhar Doab) Beas and Sutlej.Broad flood plains of Khadar flanked by bluffs are called Dhaya in Punjab. The northern part of the PunjabHaryana Plain adjoining the Siwalik Hills has witnessed intensive erosion leading to gully formation by network of streams called Chos. - Like N.Bihar, the south Bihar plains also has swamps and marshes called Jal near Patna and Tai in east of Mokama.-The Ganga delta has its seaward face more influenced by the tidal activity than by the waves with the result that the indented coastline has a maze of sandbanks, mudflats, mangrove swamps, islands and forelands-Ganges Deltaic Tract:Extends for 430 kmsWidth 480 Kms.

More on the Himalayas:Mt. Everest 8848mGodvin Austen (K2) 8611 mKanchenjunga 8598mMakalu 8481mDhaulagiri 8172mMansalu 8156mNanga Parbat 8126mAnnapurna 8078mGasherbrum 8086mNandaDevi 7817mKamet 7756mGurla Mandhata 7728m

More on Peninsular Plateau:-General Elevation: 600-900m -fit remained above the sea level for a larger part of the geological history,
- Aravalli Range: Oldest Relict Mountains Length 700km General elevation (400-600m) Reduced to the level of alluvial plains near Delhi and continues up to Haridwar under alluvium.Widens southward Passes: Barr, Pipli Ghat, Dewair, and Desuri. Highest peak: Guru Shikhar (1,722m)Hill station: Mt. Abu. Of Rajasthan Uplands: Drained by Banas 250-500 m high Ancient crystalline rocks of Madhya Bharat Pathar: Ancient Vindhyan sediments through which Chambal river has cut deep and wide valley and has formed Ravines and Badlands.-Bundelkhand Uplands: Old erosional surface Granitic and gneissic rocks of Malwa Plateau: Mostly of lava Rolling surface and flat topped hills-Vindhyan Scarpland and Ranges: Series of tablelands separated from each other by a prominent sand stone scarp. General elevation (300650m) Strong sandstones of the Kaimur, Rewa and the Bhander series are the principal scarp makers.-Satpura Range: Between Narmada and Tapti Extends through the Mahadeo Hills to the Maikal rangesMostly occupied by Deccan Trap Rises to 900-1000m. Peaks: Astamba Dongar (1325m) and Dhupgarh (13 50m) (it is the highest peak of Madhya Pradesh). Widens considerably in the central part (Mahadeo Hills in north and Gawaligarh Hills in south)-Maharashtra Plateau: Formed of plateau basalt Rolling plains with intervening shallow valleys, -Telangana Plateau: Unlike the Maharashtra plateau, which is made of Deccan basalt, the plateau of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are carried out of Archaean Gneissic Rocks.Surface of the plateau is dotted with low hills and shallow depressions. In such a depression, the twin city of Hyderabad and Secunderabad is located.-Karnataka Plateau: Northern portion drained by Krishna and its tributaries. Mysore Plateau loftiest and most well defined plateau in South Asia.Physiographically Mysore Plateau can be divided into Malnad and Maidan. Malnad this comprises hilly Western Ghats with average elevation of 1000m. Dissected into valleys and covered with dense forests.WEST COASTAL PLAIN► Located between the western ghats and the Arabian sea coast► Narrow plain width 54Km► Drained by several short and swift streams which are unable to form deltas► There are several lagoons especially in the southern part of this plain.► The western plain has indented coast which supports many ports.Mt is a submerged coast and hence tilting has left no scope for depositional action of the rivers.Maidan Area of rolling plains with low granitic hills
-Baghelkhand Plateau: East of Maikal range and norh of Mahanadi basin and bounded by Son on north. Antclinal hills and synclinal valleys of sandstones and limestone; occur to the south. Singauli basin is considerably dissected.
-Chhotanagpur Plateau: Topography is marked by roundel granitic hills (exfoliation domes) and elevated terraces of older flood plains. Plateau is deeply dissected around it, edges giving rise to steep escarpments locally known as Ghats. Higher plateaus have flat laterite capped summits know as Pats.The Garhjat Hills in Orissa extend from southern border of the Ranchi Plateau upto the Mahanadi river.
- Mahanadi Basin (Chhattisgarh basin)Low lying tract with elevation of 600 to 100m and surrounded by hills in all sides, Dandkaranya Fegion: Lying south of Chhattisgarh basin and drained Indravati river.
- The peninsular plateau continue into North East as Shillong Plateau, the gap separating these two plateaus is known as Rajmaha Garo

EAST COASTAL PLAIN-Located between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal coast-Comparatively broader (average width 80100Km)-Big rivers like the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Cauvery have formed large deltas- Lagoons are comparatively less in this plain-The eastern plain has more or less a straight coast where good ports are lacking.-Mostly of emergent type, characterized by offshore bars, fine sea beaches, sand ridges and lagoons.Western Coastal Plain: -This straight coast is quite indented and is marked by caves (small sheltered recess in ' the coast) and creeks (small tidal inlets or estuaries of small streams)Gujarat plains built up of alluvium of the Sabarmati, Mahi, Narmada and the Tapti rivers.Only on the Malabar Coast it is that there are a number of lakes, lagoons and backwaters locally called the Kayals. Eastern Coast: f From N to S, the coastal plains are known as the Utkal, Andhra and the Tamil Nadu Plains it has lakes, like Chilka, Koleru, and Pulicat.-The islands of Srisailam, Srirangapattamand Sivasamudram are found in the Kaveri basin.More on Western Ghats:- Length 1600Kni- These block mountains were formed due to the down warping of a part of the land into the Arabian Sea. Up to 16° N latitude they are mainly composed of basalt- Harishchandra, Mahabaleshwar, Kalsubai and Salher are important peaks in this region. Thalghat and Bhorghat are the important passes for roads and railways -South of Goa they are composed of granites and gneisses and have more rugged topography.-Average elevation is 1220 m. Few peaks are above 1500 m like, Kudremukh (1892) and Pushpagiri (1714) fin the Nilgiris the Eastern Ghats join the Sahyadris (W Ghats) to form a mountain knot where highest point is Doddabetta (2637m) South of Nilgiri lies the Palghat Gap which connects Tamil Nadu with Kerala South of Palghat, Anaimudi (2695m) is a knot, which is joined by three hills, viz. the Anaimalai hills (1800-2000m) in the north, the Palni hills (9001200m) in the N.E. and the Cardamom or Elamalai hills in the south, The Anaimalai constitutes a series of plateau with rolling topography. Here hill slopes support tea, coffee, cinchona and Kodaikanal hill station (2195m) is located on the southern edge of the Palni hills, Tambraparni has it source near Agastya Malai forming a series of waterfalls (Bajiatirtham and Papanasam)

More on Eastern Ghats:Depict True Mountain characteristic between Mahnadi and Godavari (peaks Nimalgiri (Koraput), Mahendragiri (Ganjam) Dominant rocks: Khondalites (metamorphosed sedimentary) and Charnokites (intursive rocks resembling granites)Between the Krishna River and Chennai they continue as the Kondavidu hills mainly composed of Quartzites and Slates.The Nallamalai (9001100m) and Palkonda hills are composed of Cuddapah and Kurnool formations. Their continuation is to be seen in the Javadi, Shevroy and Biligiri Rangam hills of Salem and Coimbatore.Nilgiris (blue mountains) provide the converging site for three mountain ranges: the Sahyadri joining opposite of the Makurti peak; the Southern Ghats across the Palghat in the south and the Eastern Ghats in the north eastern corner

Rivers of India
1. Indus: Rises Tibet, Near Mansarovar lake. Direction of flow West and Northwest and falls into Arabian Sea Drainage Area 11,65,000 km2, India has a share of32,190 km2

2. Jhelum: Rises Verinag at the foothills of Pirpanjal. Direction of flow Northwards from direction and meets Chambal near Sawai Madhopur.

3. Son: Originates from the Amarkantak Plateau. It merges into Ganga as its right bank tributary near Ramnagar.

4. Ramganga: It rises in the Kumaoun Himalayas. Enters the Ganga plain near Kalagarh. It joins the left bank of the Ganga near Kannauj.

5. Sarda: It rises in the Eastern Himalayas and is known as Kali in Himalayas, the Sarda in Pilibhit and Kheri districts and Chauka before it joins the right bank of the Ghaghara near Bahramgaht. The Sarda runs along the IndoNepal boundary and leaves Himalayas at Brahmdeo.

6.Ghaghara: Rises in Karnali, is of Himalayan origin and crosses the western part of the Nepal Himalayas and joins Ganga near Chapra (Bihar) as its left bank tributary. The Rapti joins Ghaghara's left bank at Barhaj.

7.Gandak: Rises near China, Nepal boundary and enters Champaran (Bihar) and joins the left bank of the Ganga at Sonepur.

8.Kosi: Rises in Nepal and joins the left bank of Ganga at Karagola near Bhagalpur. The rivers is notorious for shifting its course, leads to floods and hence known as the 'Sorrow of Bihar'

9.Damodar: Rises in the Palamu dist, in Chota Nagpur plateau (Jharkand). It is better known as the 'Sorrow of Bengal' and joins the Bhagirathi, Hugly in West Bengal

10.Brahmaputra: Tsangpo, runs to the South along the eastern blank of Namcha Barwa and crosses the Assam Himalayas, under the name of Dhiang and enters Assam valley and called Brahmaputra.
Tributaries are Subanshi, Bharati, Manas on the right bank and Dibang, Luhit BariDihing, Dhansiri, Kapili on the left bank, Drainage area: 3,40,000 km2 in India. In Bangladesh it is known as Meghna

11.Cauvery: Rises Brahmagiri range of Western Ghats (Coorg dist.) (Karnataka). Direction of flow: to Bay of Bengal ( East, South East); It is called 'Ganga Daksin'. Tributaries: on left bank: Ilemavati and Shinusha, Arkavati. On right bank: Kabani, Bhavani and Amaravati. Drainage area: 87,900km2

12.Krishna: Rises Near Mahabaleshwar, Western Ghats (Maharashtra). Direction of flow: flows through Satara and Dangli districts of Maharashtra, northern Karnataka and southern Andhra Pradesh, Tributaries: Kaya, Malprabha, Ghatprabha, Bhima, Tungbhadra. Drainage Area: 2,51,830km2

13.Godawari: Rises inTrimbak plateau near Nasik (Maharashtra) and flows eastward in the gorge upto Nasik town. Direction of flow: It drains eastern and south eastern
It is the longest river in Indian Peninsula. Tributaries left bank Darna, Penganga, Wardha, Wenganga, Indravati, Sabri, Pravara, Purna, Manpla, Maner, Pranhita. Right bank: Manjra.

14.Mahanadi: Rises in Dandkaranaya and Southern part Chhattisgarh. Direct on of flow: after flowing northwards, it receives Sheonath in bank a little above Sheonarayan. Tributaries Sheonath, Hasdeo, Mand on left bank and Jank, Ung Tel on right bank. Drainage area: 1,41,600km2

15.Narmada: Rses in Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh. Drainage area: 98,786 km2 Tributaries: Burhner Tawa, Sher, Dudli, Shakkar, Hiran, Tedoni, Brrna, Anjal, Machak, Kundi, Joi, Karyan. The famous wasrfall 'Dhuandhar' is on Nirmada River near Jabalpur. The river forms an Estuary at the mouth of the sea.

16.Tapti: Rses: in Multai (Betul dis) M.P (Satpura Range). Tributaries: Gomai, janjal, Arunavati. Left bank; Veghar, Girna, Puma, Pujhara. Drainage area 65,145m2

17.Luni Rises in Annasagar in Ajmer cst.(RajasJfian). Drainage are: 42,240km2 This river drains into Rann of Kutch. Tributaries Bandi, Sutri, and Jawai

18.Sabarmati: Rises in JaiSamand lake in Udaipur dist,(Rajasthan), Drainage area: 21,674km2 Tributaries Wakal, Harrow, Neshwa, Hathmati.

19.Subarnrekha: Rises: Interposed between Ganga and Mahanadi. Drainage area 19500km2

20.Mahi: Rises in Aravallis in Udaipur dist. Direction south southwest into the Gulf of Cambay

21.Pennar: Rises in Kolar dist (Karnataka). Direction flows through a gorge of Cuddappah and enters the sea near the city of Nellore.

22.Ken: Rises in Vindhyas in M.P. Direction flow northwards to join Yamuna.

Lakes and Lagoons
- Largest fresh water lake in India Wular (Jammu and Kashmir)
- Largest fresh water lake in Rajasthan Jaisamand
- Largest lake in Rajasthan Sambhar
- Asia's largest brackish water lake Chilka (orissa)
Some important Lakes
Pulicat Lake Andhra Pradesh,

Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh,

Loktak Lake Manipur,

Lonar Lake Maharashtra,

Nakki Lake Mount Abu (Rajasthan),
Deedwana Lake Deedwana (Rajasthan),
Panchbhadra Lake Rajasthan,

Dal Lake Srinagar (J and K),

Lingtzi Tang Jammu and Kashmir,
Tso Murari Jammu and Kashmir,
Govind Vallabh Gagar U.P,

Pichola Lake Rajasthan,

Sukhna Chandigarh,

Ashtamudi Kerala.
Sources of Irrigation
- Mainly three types of sources are used for irrigation purposes in India. These are Wells (including tube wells),
Tanks and Canals.
- 55.68% of the total irrigated area is irrigated by Wells (Including tube well and pumping sets)
-Canals irrigate about 32.04% of the total irrigated land
- Tanks contribute 5.8%, and 6.47% is contributed by other sources.
- Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of tube wells in the country.

Top 5 states using Tank irrigation
Tamil Nadu
Andhra Pradesh

Top 5 states using Canal irrigation
Jammu and Kashmir: 94.3%
Assam : 63.3%
Haryana : 49.8%
Orissa : 45.4%
Karnataka : 41.3%

Top 5 states using Well irrigation
Uttar Pradesh

Total Irrigated land area under Canals (in ,000 Hectares)
Uttar Pradesh : 3,075
Madhya Pradesh : 1,796
Andhra Pradesh : 1,539
Rajasthan : 1,497
Haryana : 1,375

Total Irrigated land area under Tanks (in, 000 Hectares)
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Orissa West

- Punjab and Haryana Upper Bari Doab (Ravi) Western Jamuna Canal (Jamuna)
Sirhind Canal (Sutlej) Bhakra Canal (Bhakradam) Nangal Canal (Nangal dam) Upper Bari Doab (Jamuna) of Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh
Lower Ganga Canal (Ganga) Upper Ganga Canal (Ganga) Eastern Jamuna Canal (Jamuna)
Agra Canal (Jamuna) Sharda Canal (Sharda) (longest canal of U.P) Betwa Canal (Betwa) -Bihar
Son Canal (Son)
Triveni (Triveni)
-Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh
Mahanadi Canal (Mahanadi) Waiganga Canal (Waiganga) Tandula Canal (Tandula)
-Rajasthan: Indira Gandhi Canal (Satluj, Beas), Jawai Project (Jawai)
- West Bengal Maymurakshi Project Kangabasti
-Maharashtra: Pravara river Canal (Pravara) Nira Canal (Yelwandi) Mutha Canal (Mutha)
- Andhra Pradesh Kurnool Cuddappah Canal Pochampad Project Kadam Project
Bukingham Canal Longest navigable canal in India. (Godawari Cauvery Delta)
- Tamil Nadu Grand Anicut Canal Vadavar Canal Lower Bhawani Manimutthar Parambikulu Aliyar
- Orissa Taldanda Canal Hirakund Project
- Kerala Periyar Project Malam Puzhar
- Karnataka: Ghatprabha Valley Scheme Bhadra Project Malprabha Project
- Gujarat Mahi project Kadana project Dantiwada Project Ukai Project.
The climate of India belongs to the 'Tropical monsoon type'. Although a sizeable part of the country lying north of the tropic of Cancer falls in the northern temperature zone but the shutting effects of the Himalayas and the existence of the Indian Ocean have played significant role in giving India a distinctive characteristics of Salient features of the Indian climate:
1. Seasonal Reversal of winds
Winter season Winds blow from NE to SW
Summer season Winds blow from SW to NE
2. Formation of Alternatively High and Low Pressure Areas over the land.
Winter season due to low temperature conditions high pressure area is formed. Summer season Intense heating of the land leads to the formation of thermally induced low pressure cell over NW part of the country.
3. Seasonal and Variable Rainfall
Over 80% of annual rainfall is obtained during the five month of the rainy season.
There is variability in rainfall so far time and place are considered.
There is considerable spatial variation in the general distribution of rainfall.
4. Plurality of Seasons That is constantly changing weather conditions
5. Characterized by National Calamities.
-The word 'Monsoon' is derived from the Arabic word 'Mausim' Monsoon is flow pattern of the general atmosphere circulation over a wide geographical area, in which there is a clearly dominant wind in one direction in every port of the region concerned, but in which this prevailing direction is reversed (or almost reversed) from winter to summer and from summer to winter."

Concepts of the origin of Monsoon
1. Thermal concept: From Classical Theory of Hally (1686)
- Generated by the differential seasoned heating of continental and oceanic areas. High pressure is developed over the continent (near Lake Baikal and Peshawar), where low pressure over southern Indian ocean. Therefore outflow of air from the high pressure land areas to the low pressure areas resulting into NE Monsoon

2. Aerological Concept - Given by a German Meterologist R. Seherhag (1948)
According to him the changes in the direction of winds at all levels in the atmosphere are directly related to the temperature changes in the air above the friction layer.

3. Dynamic Concept-Propounded by Flohn (1951): Based on the dynamic origin of monsoons. According to him monsoon is the seasonal migration of planetary winds and presure belts following the sun. Over the land the annual temperature changes are relatively larger because of which the seasonal shifts of temperature and pressure belts amount to many degrees. 4 Due to the shifting the major part of the Indian subcontinent comes under impact of Equatorial Westerlies. During winter due to southward shifting of pressure and wind belt (he planetary system of northeast trade winds is established over the region. Hence this theory explains the existence of monsoon not by the temperature, contrasts between land and sea, but by the annual migration of thermally produced planetary winds and pressure belts.

4. Recent Concepts (a) Jet Streams
Jet streams are high altitude geostrophic winds (i.e. blowing parallel to equator) blowing between middle latitude at high speed in a meandering course.
During winter season the upper air westerly jet streams are positioned in Asia. These are bifurcated in two branches due to Tibet Himalayan obstruction. North branch blows north of Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau. Southern branch blows south of the mighty mountains
The southern branch inscribes an anticyclone (Clockwise) arc across Afghanistan followed by a cyclonic (Anticlockwise) are along the southern flank of the Himalayas. A high pressure system gets formed south of the jet stream over Afghanistan and NW Pakistan where air tends to subside leading to atmospheric stability and dry conditions there by causing NE winter monsoons. The jet stream helps disturbances in the NW of the subcontinent, which tend to follow paths immediately beneath the jet stream. These disturbances move long the eastern Mediterranean and into NW India appearing here as waves rather then as well developed frontal cyclones.
During summer season as sun falls vertically over the Tropic of Cancer the polar surface high pressure is weakened and upper air circum polar whirl shift northward as a result of which the upper air westerly jet are also withdrawn from southern slopes of the Himalayas.
The removal of jet stream to north of the Tibetan plateau results in reversal of the curvature of How of free air to the north and north west of the subcontinent. This event may well be the trigger that sets off the 'burst' of the monsoon.

(b) Tibet Plateau
4 In 1973, the Monsoon Expedition (MONEX) was organized under the joint auspices of the erstwhile Soviet Union and India. Experiments concluded that summer time heating of Tibetan Highland plays a dominant role in the origin of Monsoon circulation. 4 Due to its protected height Tibetan plateau receives 23°C more insolation than the neighboring areas. The plateau affects the atmosphere in two ways (a) as a mechanical barrier and (b) as a high level heat sources. Infact the plateau accentuates the northland displacement of the jet stream. 4 The summer time heating of the Tibetan Plateau makes it a high level heat source, which produces thermal anticyclone over this region, thereby weakening the western subtropical jet stream south of the Himalayas and intensifying the move of S.W monsoon.

(c) Effect because of ocean
El Nino a warm ocean current appears along the Peru coast in December. It replaces the Peru or Humboldt Cold Ocean current flowing over this region during normal years. Under normal times the layer over the eastern Pacific is cool and shallow, while over the western Pacific it is warm and deep. Such conditions are helpful for strong southwest monsoons. The appearance of El Nino reverses the conditions (warm condition over eastern Pacific and cold in western Pacific). Since El Nino represents large atmospheric perturbations to which the ocean responds with warm of colder surface temperature, it lands to extreme events, such as drought, flood and poor monsoons. The Southern Oscillation is the name ascribed to a seesaw pattern of meteorological changes that are often observed between the Pacific, the pressures over the Indian Ocean tend to be low, and vice versa. The oscillation was discovered by Sir Gilber Walker and is therefore also known as "Walker circulation". The oscillation has a period varying from 27 years. The intensity of the Southern Oscillation is measured by the difference in sea level pressures of Tahiti and Port Darwin
El Nino Southern Oscillations

(d) The Somali Current: It is one of the few currents, which reverse its direction with the overlying wind. Summer Flows northward Winters Flows southward

Weather conditions

Cold Weather Season Southerly branch of the jet stream occupies its position south of the Himalayas, which is accompanied with the restoration of light northeast trade winds (monsoons) to the surface, withdrawal of the inter tropical convergence zone, formation of anti cyclonic cell over north western India and dry weather prevailing, over most of the areas in the country

Temperature conditions: General increase of temperature from North to South, Isotherms run almost parallel to the latitudes (in January the 21 °C isotherm runs through the middle of the country connecting Tapti estuary to the Mahanadi delta) in the east. West India Punjab, Haryana West U.P and Northern Rajasthan Less than 15°C.

In South India the isotherm, tend to bend southward and run parallel to the coast. The western coast is warmer than the eastern one by about LT C. This season is characterized by the inflow of depression from the west and the North West. These low pressure systems originate in West Asia near the Mediterranean Sea and are known as Western Disturbances. Their average frequency is four to five depressions per month and highly intensified Between December and February. (Rainfall due to these disturbances is highly helpful for RABI crops) Fine weather, clear skies, low humidity, absence of rainfall, low temperature and a large diurnal variation in it are the usual features of the winter season.

-North East parts of India also get some rainfall during this season.
A low pressure area occupies the northern parts of the Bay of Bengal during October, which moves southward and get deflecting towards, the coromandal coast thereby producing rains on this coast. The presence of inter tropical convergence and the easterly depression are responsible for these rains. Hot and Dry Weather is characterized by low pressure system high temperature, unstable pressure and wind circulation. -The dust storms of Punjab and Haryana, the Loos of UP, the Norwesters (Kalbaisakhis) of W. Bengal and cyclonic depressions of the eastern coast produce a stormy and turbulent weather.

-The rains caused by thunderstorm in Karnataka are called 'Cherry Blossoms'. These are beneficial for coffee plantation. Elsewhere in South India they are known as 'Mango Showers'
- Dry and dusty westerly winds flow in the northern western parts of the country which make the outdoor life difficult are known as Loo. The Wet Season: The southern branch of the western jet is withdrawn from south of the Himalaya thereby leading to the formation of a dynamic depression over the surface thermal low. The ITC shifts northwards allowing equatorial westerlies to in the subcontinent.

- Indian subcontinent receives bulk of its rainfall (around 80%) from the southwest
- The Arabian Sea current causes rainfall all along the Western Coast, Western Ghats, Gujarat, Maharashtra, parts of M.P and Rajasthan.
- While crossing the Sahyadris (Western Ghats), the monsoonal current produce heavy rainfall on the windward and scanty rainfall on the leeward side thereby producing a rain shadow area. The rainfall is also erratic on the leeward side, which results in frequent drought in Maharashtra and Karnataka

-The Tamil Nadu coast goes dry in this season.
- The Arabian Sea branch meets the Bay of Bengal branch over ChhotaNagpur Plateau producing copious rainfall.
-Absence of moutain barrier in Kutch, parallel position of the Aravalli, effect of the hot and dry air results in failure of Arabian Sea branch to produce adequate rainfall. The Bay of Bengal branch, obstructed by the eastern hill is deflected westward towards the Ganga Plain. Entrapped in the valleys of Meghalaya, the current produces very heavy rainfall [Cherapunji (1087cm) and Mawsynram (1141 cm)]

- The weather is also affected by a number of cyclonic depressions entering the country through the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. About 20 to 25 such depressions develop during monsoon period.
- With the exception of J & K and Parts of Tamil Nadu, most of the country receives heavy rainfall.
Season of Retreating Monsoon
- South West begins to retreat from the second or third week of September.

- Unlike the Sudden burst, the retreat is highly gradual.
-The southerly branch of the jet stream returns to its winter position by October and this is
accompanied by the restoration of light North East trade winds to the surface.
- Cloudiness and moisture are low except in the southern parts of the Peninsula.
- It is this retreating monsoon which brings rain to the Tamil Nadu coast as North East Monsoon.
The Indian council of Agricultural Research has indentified eight main types of soil in the country.
Soil cover in India (%)
1.Alluvial Soil 43.4
2.RedSoil 18.6
3.BlackSoil 15.2
4.Lateritic Soil 12.2
5. OtherSoil 17.9

The main soil types are:
ALLUVIAL SOIL: It covers 15 lakh Km2 SOIL WEALTH
The Indian council of Agricultural Research has indentified eight main types of soil in the country.
Soil cover in India (%)
1.Alluvial Soil 43.4
2.RedSoil 18.6
3.BlackSoil 15.2
4.Lateritic Soil 12.2
5. OtherSoil 17.9
The main soil types are:
ALLUVIAL SOIL: It covers 15 lakh Km2 of area.
- Greater parts of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, U.P, parts of Assam, Orissa, W.Bengal, valleys of Narmada and Tapi
- Depth of soil exceeds 600m below the ground surface
- Divided into newer and older; finer and newer alluvium is called Khadar -Khadar is light coloured and is less kankary
- Bhangar: older alluvium more clayey in composition and generally of dark colours; also becomes Alkaline and is called Bhurs;
- Khadar soils are more sandy in composition that Bhangar soils
1.The fertility of the soil is because of the following reasons: Lit is due to more mixing up the debris from the rocks of the Himalayas rather that the prevalence of nitrogenous matters or humus.
2.These soils are composed of material drawn from different rocks and therefore contain a great variety of salts.
3.These soils are very fine grained, highly porous and light so that they are easily tilled and are therefore the best agricultural soils of the country.
Crops: rice, sugarcane, tobacco, banana, cotton, wheat, jute, maize, oilseeds and vegetables.
RED and YELLOW SOIL: It covers about 6.1 lakh km2 of area.
- Western Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Southern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa and Chotanagpur plateau of Jharkhand. Scattered patches can be found in Birbhum (W.Bengal), Mirzapur, Jhansi, Banda, Hamirpur (U.P), Udaipur, Chiltisgarh, Dungarpur, Banswara and Bhilwara dist. (Rajasthan)
-The colour is mainly due to ferric oxides occuring as thin coatings on the soil particles while the iron oxide occurs as haematite or as hydrous ferric oxide, the colour is red and when it occurs in the hydrate form as limonite the soil gets a yellow colour
-These soils are poor in phosphorus, nitrogen and lime contents and are acidic like laterite.
- Red soils develop generally on metamorphic rocks
- It is sandier and less clayey
- It is rich in potash
BLACK OR REGUR SOILS: - It covers an area of 5,46,000 Km2
-Tracts in A.P, Maharashtra (Tapi, Godavri, Bhima and Krishna), Karnataka (Bijapur, Gulbarga, Bidar, Belgaum, Dharwar and Raichur), Gujarat (Surat, Bharuch, Vadodra), M.P (Narmada, Vindhya and Satpura plateau), Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan (Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar); U.P(Jalawn, Hamirpur, Banda and Jhansi) -The black colour is due to the presence of titaniferous magnetite compound of iron and aluminum silicate. It is also believed that black colour is due to admixture with humus on cultivation.
-These are rich in iron, lime, calcium and magnesium carbonate and alumina. Black soils are poor phosphorous and nitrogen
-The soil is clayey and fine texture with dark colour Crops: cotton, wheat, chilies, linseed, jawar, Virginia tobacco, castor, millets
- It develop cracks in hot weather
- Black soils are ideal for dry farming due to their moisture retentive quality.
-It becomes sticky due to high percentage of clay and so difficult to plough.

- It covers an area about 1.26 lakh km2
-Laterite is a typical soil of the tropical regions which receives heavy seasonal rainfall.
- Iron and aluminum compounds dominate in its composition
- It is found in W.Bengal (Midnapur, Burdwan, Birbhum and Bankura), Orissa (Cuttack and Ganjam), Maharashtra (Ratnagiri, Satara, Kolaba, Kanara dist.), Karnataka (Shimoga, Hasan, Kadur, Mysore), Kerala (Malabar)
-The soils are generally poor in nitrogen, potassium and organic matters
-Fertilizers are necessary
-Cannot retain moisture while in plains they consist of heavy loam and clay and easily retain moisture
Crops: rice, ragi, sugarcane, cashewnuts

- It covers an area of 68,000 km2
- Tracts in Rann of Kutch, Sundarbanns, Bihar, UP, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan and Maharashtra
- It is known by different names: Thur, Reh, Kallar, Rakar, Usar, Kari and Chopan
-Texturally they are sandy to loamy sand
-Alkaline soils are deficient in calcium and nitrogen
- Peaty saline soils are called Kari in Kerala
- Main salts: calcium, sodium and magnesium these soils can be reclaimed by providing good drainage applying lime or gypsum and cultivating salt resistant crops (like berseem, rice and sugarcane) -These soils are utilized in the cultivation of a wide variety of crops like rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco etc.

MOUNTAIN SOILS: It is of three types a) Brown Forest Soils: height 900-1800m; rich in humus and are fertile
b) Podzol: 1800m (height); thick coniferous forest, maize, wheat and orchids: phosphoric content
c)Alpine Meadow Soil: sandy loam
-These soils are silty loam to loam in texture and dark brown in colour
-These are found in hills of deccan, eastern ghats, western ghats, valley and hill slopes of Himalayas etc.
-These are deficient in potash, phosphoric acid and lime

- It covers an area of 14,200km2
- Tracts in Rajasthan, Haryana, south of Punjab, Thar desert occupies and area of 1,06,000 alone
-Clay content is poor and is less than 8%
-These are reddish brown
- Sandy soils are called Bhur -Rich in phosphates and poor in nitrogen
- Contains high content of soluble salts but low moisture content
-The soil is sandy to gravelly
-These soils may be reclaimed with the proper development of irrigation facilities For example, the Ganganagar district benefited by the Indira Gandhi Canal has become a leading producer of cereal and cotton.
Crops: millets, jawar bajra jowar and coarse grains

PEATY AND MARSHY SOIL -These soils occur mainly in the western parts of Kottayam districts and parts (peaty) of Alappuzha dist. of Kerala -Soil are black and heavy and highly acidic.
-Highly saline, rich in organic matter but deficient in phosphate and potash. -Marshy soils are found in the coastal regions of Orissa, W.Bengal and Tamil Nadu; Central portion of North Bihar and in Almora district of Uttaranchal.
-Marshy soils are the result of water logging anaerobic condition of the soils, and the presence of iron and varying amount of organic matter.


Factors influencing soil erosion
Slope of topography
Nature of the soil
Soil moisture
Wind velocity

Causes of soil erosion
Faulty cultivation methods
Shifting cultivation
Diversion of natural drainage channels by railway embankments and roads Lack of proper surface drainage
Forest fires
Effects of Soil Erosion Loss of top soil Harmful effects of erosion on organic matter and soil structure.
Decline in soil capacity Depostion of sand and gravel on agricultural land
Flooding of streams

Methods to check soil erosion a) Biological Measures Improving the existing surface cover Strip cropping Crop rotation Stubble mulching Vegetative binding Using organic manures Other measures(checking overgrazing, reducing surplus cattle, stripping shifting cultivation and taking preventative measures against forest fires)
b) Mechanical Measures: Contour tillage, Contour bunding ,Terracing, Constructing proper drainage channels and plugging the gullies, Basin lifting, Water harvesting, Scientific slope management.
Forest Cover (areawise Km2)
1.Madhya Pradesh 1,31,195
2.Arunachal Pradesh 68,602
3.0rissa 46,941
4. Maharashtra 46,143
5.Andhra Pradesh 43,290
6.Karnataka 32,403
7.Bihar 26,524
8.Assam 23,824
9.Jammu & Kashmir 20,440
10.Mizoram 18,775
11.Manipur 17,418
12.Meghalaya 15,657
13.Nagaland 14,221
14Gujarat 12,578
15.Himachal Pradesh 12,521
16. Kerala 10,334
17.Punjab 1,387
18.Goa 1,255
19.Haryana 1,604

Forest Cover (% of the total area)
1. Mizoram 89.06
2.Nagaland 85.78
3.Arunachal Pradesh 81.92
4Manipur 78.04
5Meghalaya 69.80
6Goa 33.90
7.Assam 30.37
8 Orissa 30.15
9Madhya Pradesh 29.58
lO.Kerala 26.59
11.Himachal Pradesh 22.49
12.Karnataka 16.89
13.Andhra Pradesh 15.74
14.Bihar 15.25
15. Maharashtra 14.99
16Jammu & Kashmir 09.20
17. Gujarat 06.41
18.Punjab 02.75
19. Haryana 01.37
- Botanical survey of India (1890) Kolkata
-Zoological survey of India (1916) Kolkata
- Forest survey of India (1981) Dehradun. Its four zonal offices are located at Bangalore, Kolkata, Nagpur, Simla.

-To preserve the genetic diversity in representative ecosystem
- So far 13 Biosphere Reserve have been set up 1.NandaDevi: Uttaranchal
2.Nilgiris:Tamil Nadu Kerala, Karnataka
3.Lokrek: Meghalaya 4.Great Nicobar: Nicobar Island
5.Gulf of Mannar: Tamil Nadu
6.Manas: Assam
7.Sunderbans: West Bengal
8.Simlipal: Orissa
9,Dibru Daikhowa: Assam
lO.Dehang Debang- Arunachal Pradesh
11.Kanchenjunga: Sikkim
12.Agasthyamalai: Kerala
- Three of them are recognized on world network of Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO Nilgiris, Sunderban, Gulf Of Mannar

Jammu and Kashmir Wular, Tsomurari
Himachal Pradesh Chandratal , Pong dam, Renuka,
Punjab Harike, Konili, Ropar
Rajasthan Keoldeo. Sambhar, Pichola
Others: Gujarat Nalsarovar, Maharashtra Ujni, Kerala Ashtamudi, Vembanad, Sastham Kotta Chandigarh: Sukhna, Madhya Pradesh Bhoj, Bihar Kabar, West Bengal East Calcutta Wet land, Orissa Chilka, Gahirmatha, Andhra Pradesh Kolleru, Manipur Loktak, Tamil Nadu-Point Calimere

Four coral reefs have been indentified for conservation and management. These are: Gulf of Mannar (fringing reef) Andaman and Nicobar Islands (fringing reef)
Lakshdweep Islands (atoll reef) Gulf of Kutch (platform reef)

Salt tolerant forest ecosystems found mainly in the tropical and sub tropical inter tidal regions of the world Northern Andaman and Nicobar Islands Sunderbans (W.Bengal) Bhitakanika (Orissa) Mahanadi delta (Orissa) Coringa Krishna estuary (Andhara Pradesh) Godavari delta (Andhara Pradesh)
Pichavaram (Tamil Nadu] Point Calimere (Tamil Nadu) Goa
Gulf of Kachchh (Gujarat) Coondapur (Karnataka) Vembanad (Kerala) Achra Ratcagiri (Maharastra)
Multipurpose Projects

1. Bhakra Nangal Project
- it is the largest in India on Sutlej River. It's a joint venture of Punjab, Harayana and Rajasthan.
- it has five purposes:
Two dams at Bhakra and Nangal
Nangal hydel channel
Powerhouse of 1,204 MW
Electric transmission
Bhakra canal system for irrigation
Bhakra Dam is near Roopnagar, Ropar dist. The dam is 226m in height, 518m in length, 312m in width; behind it is Govind Sagar Lake. Nangal Dam13 km from Bhakra dam, its height is 29m, length 305m, and width 121m.
- Nangal Hydel Channel 64.4km long, 42.65m wide and 6.28m deep
- Powerhouse of 1204 MW first near Gangunal. Second Kotla, third near Roopnagar and fourth and fifth near Bhakradam.
- Bhakra canal 171 km long, maximum water at Haryana (46.7%), then Punjab (37.7% and then Rajasthan (15.6%)

2. Damodar Valley Project
- Damodar is a tributary of Hughly river in Bengal and has four dams. It was setup on 19th Feb 1948 on the recommendation of W.L. Vordouin, the person who setup TVA in America. The four dams are: Tilaiya dam on Basakar River; started in 1950 and completed in 1953. Its length is 366m, and maximum width is 30m. It is the only concrete dam in the area. It has two power stations of 2,000 KW each.
-Konar dam on Konar River is in Hazarihagh. 3549 m long, maximum height 49m, completed in 1955. It supplies electricity to Bokaro Steel Project. Maithan dam on the confluence of Basakar and Damodar Rivers, 994m long and maximum height is 49m, completed in 1958, capacity is 60 MW.
-Panchet hill dam on Damodar river, completed in 1959, dam is 2545m long and maximum height is 49m, generates 40MW. In addition, three more dams have not being completedBel, Pahari and Bokaro. Durgapur Barrage23km from Raniganj, stores irrigation water of 4 DVC dams, it is 83 lm long and 12m high.

3.Hirakud Dam: 61m high, 4801m long, on Mahandi rivers(orissa)
- It is the largest dam in India and one of the largest dams of the world with the gross storage capacity of 8100 Million cubic meters.
-Two more dams have been built on Mahanadi Tibrapar and Naraj

4. Kosi Project
- It was started in 1955 with give objectives:
Flood control
Power generation
Land reclamation
Fishing and Navigation
- There are three units at this Kosi Project
A barrage near Hanumannagar (Nepal), 1149m long 72m high, Constructed in 1965.
Flood embankments, built 1959, 270km Eastern Kosi canal, 43.5km long, a powerhouse of 20 MW, has been installed, which is shared by both India and Nepal.

5. Rihand Valley Project -934m long. 92m high dam on river Rihand a tributary of Son), near Pipri in Mirzapur
-Govind Ballabh PantSagar, is the largest map made reservoir in India.
-One more project has been built at Ovea on Rihand River.

6. Chambal Valley Project
- It is a joint venture of M.P and Rajasthan started in 1954 on Chambal River (tributary of Yamuna)
- In the first stage the dam was 64m high and 514m long, was called Gandhi Sagar Dam, it is in chaurasigarh near Bhanpura, built in 1960.
- In the second stage, one more dam was built which was 54m high and 1143m long was named Ranapratap Masonry Dam. It is 56km from Rawatbhata.
- In the third stage, the dam was 548m long and 45m high called Jawahar Sagar dam at Kota Dam, constructed in 1971.

7 . Tungbhadra Multipurpose Project
- It is a joint venture of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh
- The dam is 50m high and 2,441m long on Tungbhadra River (a tributary of Krishna)
- It is built in Bellary dist. of Karnataka
- There are canals on both sides of the dam.
-There are three power stations here.

8. Gandak Project
- Joint venture of Bihar and U.P
- This project has 7.47m long and 9.81m high barrage at Bhansolotan in Valmikinagar in Bihar
-The project was completed in 196667
- Head Regulator is at Triveni
-The barrage has four canal two each for India and Nepal

9. Narmada Valley Project
- Narmada originates near Amarkantak Plateau (M.P)
- It is the fifth largest river in India.
-The project aims to have 29 major and 3,000 small dams -The project was concieved in 194546.
-The largest project is Sardar Sarovar Project has the capacity of 77 lakh hectare and will provide is irrigation to 17.92 lakh hectares in Gujarat.
-Two power stations will produce 1,450 MW of hydroelectricity
- Second major project is Narmada Sagar project started in 1984.

10. Nagaraiuna Sagar Project
- Started in 195556, the dam is on Krishna River in Nalgonda dist
- Its height is 124.7m and length is 1450m.
- It has two canals Jawahar on the right and Lai Bahadur canal on the left
- The powerhouse has two units, 50 MW each.

11. Vyas Project (BEAS)
- It is a joint venture of Punjabi, Haryana and Rajasthan
- It has two parts, Beas Sutlej link and Pong dam
- Beas Sutlej is 61 m high and is in Pandoh (H.P), and Pong is 116m, high at Dhauladhar in Pong near Beas.

12.Ramganga Project
- Ramganga is a tributary of Ganga
- Aim of the project is to provide irrigation facilities to about 6 lakh hectares of land in western U.P, to supply 20 cusecs of drinking water to Delhi and to control the floods in western and central U.P
- This project includes:
A 625.8m long and 125.6m high earth and rock filled dam across the Ramganga river and a Saddle dam of height 75.6m across the Ghuisot steam near Kalagarh in dist of Garhwal Across the river a 546m long weir at Hereoli
A feeder canal, 82km in length originating from Hereoli River Remodelling of 3388km of existing dam and 3880km long new branch canals A powerhouse on the river at its right bank with an installed capacity of 198 MW.

13. Mayurakshi Project
- Mayurakshi is a tributary of the Hugh River
- Purpose behind this project is four fold
Create irrigation potential Generate power Contral floods and Control erosion
- A barrage is constructed across the Mayurakshi River at Tilpara.
-Two irrigational canals are attached with the Tilpara barrage with total length of 1367 km and providing irrigation in West Bangal and Bihar 4,000 KW of electricity is supplied to Birbhum, Murshidabad and Santhal Pargana, which is generated by this project.
14. Indira Gandhi Canal Project
- It is the world's largest irrigation project to provide irrigation to semi arid and arid regions of Rajasthan.
- Water from Pong barrage built over Beas River is being utilized.
- Indira Gandhi canal once completed will provide irrigation to about 12.51akh hectares of land in Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Ganganagar dist of Rajasthan.
- It has two stages, in the first stage construction of the Rajasthan feeder, 189 km long Rajasthan main and about 3,183km long distribution have been taken. The second stage comprises the construction of the remaining part of the Rajasthan main canal and 5,409km long distributaries.

15.Pochampad Project -This irrigation project is the second largest project in Andhra Pradesh.
- It involve 812m in length and 43m of height masonry dam on the Godavari River in Adilabad district.
-The storage capacity of the dam is 230.36 cross m3 -A canal of length 112.63km will provide irrigation facilities in Karimnagar and Adilabad districts

16. Tehri Dam Project
- Alaknanda is the river on which this dam is being constructed in Tehri district of Uttranchal
- Motives behind this project is to collect the flood water of the Bhagirathi and the Bhilangana rivers in a large reservoir behind the dam Hydroelectricity generation, To provide irrigation facilities to agricultural land in the westem U.P.
-Tehri dam has a distinction of highest rock fill dam in the country
-2,70,000 hectares of agricultural land in western U.P and Delhi with the supply of 300 cusecs is going to be facilitated by this project
2,400 MW is the installed capacity of power generation A concrete dam at Kateshwar, 22km away from the Tehri dam will impound water released by the Tehri dam, from where another 400 MW of electricity will be generated.

17.Farraka Barrage Project -River Navigation and to augment the water flow river is the main objective of this project. A barrage across the Ganga River, 2,240 in length to maintain 271akh cu sec of flood discharge
60,000 cusec of floodwater flow to be maintained by a barrage across the Bhagirathi river length will be 213 m. A feeder canal 38.38km in length to divert 40,000 cusecs of water to Hugh River Providing infrastructure to develop river navigation and To build a rail cum road bridge to connect West Bengal with North East India.

18. Machkund Project
-It is a joint venture of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa
- A dam of height 54m and 410 m in length, has been constructed on Machkund river
- Project includes a powerhouse with 115 MW as the installed capacity

19. Parambikulam Project
-This Project is a joint venture of Kerala and Tamil nadu
- Under this project 185 MW of electricity will be generated and 1.01 lakh hectare of land will be irrigated
- Water of 8 small rivers would be utilised

20. Mahi Project
- It is on Mahi River, which has its origin in Vindhyas in Dhardis of M.P.
- Is stage 796 m in length and 21m of height dam is being constructed at Banakbori village. This stage also has 74km long canals to irrigate 1.86 hectares of land.
- 2nd stage construction of a dam of 1,430m in length and 58 m high to irrigation 80,000 of area near kodana.
- A generation of 40 MW of electricity with irrigation of 2.75 lakh hectares of land is going to be done by this project.

21. Kakrapara Project
-Project is in Gujarat on Tapti River.
-Project involves a dam 14 m high and 621m long
- 2.27 lakh hectares of land will be irrigated with the help of two canals of 505 km and 837 km in length.

22. Koyna Project
- In Maharashtra, on Koyna river
- Project involves construction of a dam 250 m in height

23. Hansdev Bango Project
- Project involves construction of a 85m high stone dam on Hansdev river in M.P
-It will irrigate 3.28 lakh hectares of land and also be used for industrial purposes

24. Bargi Project
- It is on river Bargi near Jabalpur in M.P.
- It is a multipurpose project once completed will irrigate 2.45 lakh hectares of land. 25, Bhima Project
- This project includes construction of two dams -One dam on river Pabna near Pune in Maharashtra, whichj will be 1,319 m long and 42m high.
- Other dam with a length of 2467m and a height of 56.4m will be constructed on river Krishna in Sholapur district of Maharastra.

Some other Projects are:
- Jayakwadi Project: on Godavri in Maharashtra.
- Ukai Project: on River Tapti in Gujarat.
- Puma Project: on River Puma in Maharashtra.
- Periyar Project: on River Periyar in Kerala.
- Saharawasi Hydel Project: near Jog water falls in Karnataka.
- Tawa Project: on Tawa River. M.P.
- Mata Teela Dam: on River Betwa, Jhansi; U.P,
-Kunda Project: Tamil Nadu.
- Sabrigiri Project: Kerala.
- Balimela: Orissa.
- Salal: on River Chenab
- Kalindi: Karnataka
- Idduki: Kerala
- Bhadra: on River Bhadra, Karnataka.
- Kukadi: Maharashtra
- Naptha Jhakri: Himachal Pradesh.
- Dulhasti: Jammu and Kashmir on river Chenab.
- Girna: on river Girna, Maharashtra
- Jawai Project: on River Jawai, Rajasthan
- Jakham Project: Rajasthan
- Parwati Project: River Parwati, Rajasthan
- Orai Project: River Orai, Rajasthan
- Singrauli Super Power Project: Uttar Pradesh

Hydroelectric Plants
- AndhraPradesh: lower silent, upper Sileru, Machkund, Nizam, Sagar, Nagarjun Sagar, Shri Sailam (Krishna)
- Bihar: Kosi
-Gujarat: Ukai (Tapi), Kadana (Mahi)
- Punjab and Himachal Pradesh: Bhakara Nangal on Satluj, Dchar on Beas, Giri Bata, Andhra, Binwa, Rukti, Rongtong, Bhabanggar, Bassi, Baira Siul, Chamera, Nathpa Jhakri on Sutlej (biggest hydel power project in India)
- Jharkhand: Subarnarekha, Maithon, Panchet, Tilaiya (all three under DVC)
- Karnataka: Tungbhadra, Sarawati, Kalinadi, Mahatma Gandhi (Jog fall), bhadra, ShivaSamudram(Kaveri), Shimasapur, Munirabad, Lingnamakki
- Kerala: Idduki (Periyar), Sabrigiri, Kuttiaddy, Sholayar, Sengulam, Pallivasal, Kallada, Neriamangalam, Parambikulam Aliyar, Poringal, Ponniyar
- Madhya Pradesh: Gandhi Sagar (Chambal), Pench, Bargi (Narmada), BansagarTons
- Maharashtra: Koyana, Bhivpuri(Tata Hydroelectric works), Khopli, Bhola, Bhira, Purna, Vaiterna, Paithon, Bhatnagar Feed.
- Orissa: Hirakund (Mahanadi), Balimela.
- Rajasthan: Ranapratap Sagar and Jawahar Sagar (Chambal)
- Uttar Pradesh: Rihand, Khodri, Chibro (Tons).
- Uttaranchal: Tehri Dam (Bhagirathi)
-Tamil Nadu : Pykara, Mettur, Kodyar, Sholayar, Allayar. Sakarpathi, Moyar, Suruliyar, Papanasam.
- West Bengal Panchet. -Jammu and Kashmir Lower Jhelum, Salal (Chenab), Pool Hasti ,and Karrah.
-North Eastern States: Nagaland Dikhu, Doyang , Tripura Gomuti, Manipur Loktak, Assam Kopi, Meghalaya Khandong and Kyrdemkulai, Mizoram Selrui and Barabi, Arunachal Pradesh Ranganadi.
Special Attributes of villages (1991):
1. Number of Villages (state wise in decreasing order) Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Bihar Orissa Maharashtra West Bengal Rajasthan
2. Rural Population (State wise in decreasing order) Uttar Pradesh Bihar Madhya Pradesh West Bengal Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Tamil Nadu
Other places satisfying all the three under mentioned conditions:

1. Population greater than 5000
2. Having at least 75% of the male working population engaged in nonagricultural pursuits
3. The density of population exceeds 400 per square km. -All towns and urban agglomerations are grouped into six classes according to population size.
Urban centres with less than one lakh is called a town

- City Urban centres with population of more than one lakh.

-Metropolitian Cities Cities accommodating population between one to five million

- Mega Cities Cities with more than ten million population.

-Urban Agglomeration An urban agglomeration may consists of:
A town and its adjoining outgrowth, Two or more contiguous turns with or without their outer growth
A city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous pattern.

-Conurbation: An Urban reason consisting of huge Metropolis and a number of small towns

- Phases of Urbanization:
1. Period of slow Urbanisation 1901-1931
2. Period of medium Urbanisation 1931-1961
3. Period of rapid Urbanisation 1961 onwards

What is Urbanization? The term urban is referred to towns of cities having marked secondary and tertiary functions along with municipality or notified area committee.
[ Urbanization on the other hand a process of population increase in urban areas.

Urban Regions of India:
Year Population residing in Urban Areas.
1901 10.9%
1941 14.1%
1951 17.6%
1961 18.3%
1971 20.21%
1981 23.7%
1991 26.0%
Entire urban regions of India can be divided into six zones Regional Urban Geography

Himachal Pradesh: total urban population is 74,44,824.
It has 55 urban centres smallest is Naina Devi (500), largest is Shimla (1,09,840). Chamba is most dense (4,000 people/sq. km.; least dense is Narkanda (300). only 10% of total population resides in urban areas, important urban centres are: Shabatha, Dagshai, Jutosh, Kassanti, Solan, Yole, Dalhousie etc.
Chamba is situated on Ravi and Kullu Manali on Beas. Shimla is at the altitude of 2205 m.In 1861, it was made the summer capital of India.

Madhya Pradesh: has 433 towns and 15 million people live in urban areas which is 15% ofthe total population of M.P. important cities are Indore (it is the best and most well planned city and has 10,86,000 people), Bhopal (10,63,000), third is Jabalpur (88,000), Murwara, Mahalda, Balaghat, Narsinghpur, Ambikapur, Umaria, Kaimur (all these are mining and industrial towns and cities).
Most important city is Raipur, Bhilai, Rajhara and Nandini. There are some planned cities like Panchsheel Nagar, Shankar Nagar.

Total population 40 million; 4 crore live in urban areas i.e. 25% of the total population; it has 291 urban centres; earliest towns are Paithan, JunnarKarad, Deogiri. Market towns are Sholapur and Barsi (Bhima Valley), Satara in Krishna Valley, Nandurbar, Bhulia (Tapti Valley). towns during MarathasSangli, Kurundwad, Miraj, Ichalkaranji, Phattan, Bhor, Aurangabad, Kolhapur, Pune, Mumbai.
Greater Mumbai has largest population (1 crore,26 lakh) than Kalyan, Thane, Udhampur, Navi Mumbai.

42 lakh population in urban areas.
Has 119 urban centers & 1011 % people live in urban areas.
Important industrial towns Rourkela (Sundargarh dist.), Hirakud (Sambalpur dist.), Balagir.
Mining towns areDhenkanal, Kyonjhar and Mayurbhanj.
Historical townsBhubneshwar, Cuttack and Konark. Commercial towns Sonpur, Besllanguntha, Jharsuguda, Kalahandi and Korapat.

Tamil Nadu:
260 urban centres, 190 million population in urban areas, important towns are centred around Nilgiri & Vellore, Salem and Chennai (54 lakhs).

14 million urban areas, 225 urban centres.
Important centres are Vadodra, Rajghat, Jamnagar, Bhavnagar, Ahemdabad & Surat.
Port city is Kandala. Religious centres are Dakor, Dwarka & Somnath. Gandhinagar is on Sabarmati river.

254 urban centre, 14 million people.
Oldest towns: Vatapi, Pampapur, Gokhran, Singeri, talakad, Halebid, Bilm.
Fort towns: Belgaun, Bijapur, Gulbarga, Kalyani Jalikot, Devanbali, Parvada, Shinaripur, Hosadwarja. industrial towns: Mandya, Godag, Jainagar, Gandhingar. Banglore has 41 lakh people.

Andhra Pradesh: 18 millions in urban areas, 213 urban centres, historical cities are Kurnool, Mothagudam, Sirpur, Mancheriyal etc.
Hyderabad is the largest urban centre (40 lakh), then Vizag. Uttar Pradesh: 28 million, 702 urban centres; highly urbanized sector is Yamunapur (30.4%). Kanpur has largest population (19.62 lakh), Lucknow (15.92 lakh), then Varanasi (9.29 lakhs), then Agra, Allahabad and then Meerut.

60 lakh in urban, 119 urban areas, 30% population in urban areas.
Ambala is highest urbanized, then Amritsar, Ludhiana, Jallandhar, Patiala, then Gurudaspur.

10 million in urban areas, 214 urban areas; Largest population in Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kota, Bikaner, Ajmer, Udaipur, Alwar, Bhilwara, Ganganagar

Jammu and Kashmir: 49 urban centres, 23.89% of population in urban areas. Anantnag, Baramula, Sopor in Srinagar Valley; Mirpur, Udhampur, Poonch and Leh are also urban areas.

West Bengal: 27.39% in urban areas, 19 million, 160 urban centres.

Manipur: 27% in urban areas, 30 urban centres; Imphal is largest.

Assam: 221 urban centres, 25 lakh in urban centres.

Class V 2.6%; 735 towns. Class VI 0.30%; 196 towns. India has 35 such cities whose population is more than 10 lakh or 1 million. Western India is more urbanized than Eastern India. Southern India is more urbanised than Northern India.
Chemistry Civil Eng. Electrical Eng.

► The new seed policy came in 1988.
There are three types of seeds: Breeder seeds of the primary stage, Foundation seeds of the intermediate stage and the certified or the quality seeds that is actually distributed.
Total seed production is presently hovering around 100 lakh quintals.
National seeds corporation (NSC), State Farm Corporation of India (SFCI), State seed Corporations and State seed certification agencies are the primary agencies working in the seed sector.

Maize is a kharif crop.
► Require about 80 to 95 days to mature.
► Average yield: 1606 kg/hectare.
► U.P., Bihar, Rajasthan, M.P., Punjab are important maize producing zone.
► Karnataka highest yield 2943 kg/h.

Jowar (Sarghum vulgare)
► Temperature: 26°33°
► Rainfall: less than 100 cm (30cm100cm)

Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis)
► Many species of this give milk like juice called latex which on drying or coagulating gives new rubber.
► The principle source of rubber is the Hevea tree (also known as Para Rubber Tree) native to the Amazon region in South America.
► Rubber plantation was first introduced in 1902 in India on the banks of the Periyar.
► Temperature: 21°C 35°C.
► Rainfall: 200cm to 400cm
► Alluvial soil
► Kerala produces 91% and Tamil Nadu: 5%.
► Synthetic rubber: raw materials used are Benzene and Ethyl alcohol.
► Plant set up at Borada.
► Process: wet process called Plantation or Parchment Dry Process called Cherry or Native Method.
► Production: Karnataka (Chikmanglur first plantation, Hassan, Shimoga, Coorg, Mandi); Kerala (Palaghat, Kottayam and Trivandrum) Tamil Nadu (North Aracot to Tirunvelli).
► Trade: India exports USA, Canada, Europe, Australia.
► India occupies the 12th position in coffee production.

Jute (Corchorous Capsularies)
► Production yearly 40% of the world jute.
► It is also called Brown Paper of wholesale trade.
► Temperature 27°C34°C
► Humidity: 8090%
► Rainfall: 170200 cm
► Soil: Sandy, clayey, alluvial soil
► Sowing: Mar.-Apr.
► Harvesting: July-Sept.
► Jetting: It is a microbiological process; it loosens the outer bark and facilitating removal of fibre from stalk.
► Yield : 1300 kg/hr.
► Variety: JRO7835, (Basudev)
► Production : West Bengal (2/ 3rd), Assam, Bihar

Cotton (Gossypium)
► Largest area under cultivation in world 40% of total cultivation area.
Produces only 8-10% of total world production.
► 4th important after USA, China, Russia.
► It is a subtropical crop.
► Required temperature: 21°C27°C.
► Rainfall: 50 cm to 80cm.
► Precaution : frost free period 200 days.
► Soil: Regur or Black; clayey soils containing lime and phosphates.
► Area: mainly in the area west of 80°E Meridian.
► Production : as a Kharif crop
► Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP, MP (April/May to Oct.); Tamil Nadu (sown in Jan.).
► Best Cotton: Sudan and Egypt.
► Ginning: which consists of separating the seeds from the raw material.
► Variety: Hybrid4, introduced in Gujrat, DHC32.
► Yield: 265 kg/hr.
► Production: Gujarat 15.4% (24.9%), Maharashtra19.4%, Punjab21.5% (16»3%) and Karnataka

► Rainfall: 50- 80cm.
Soil: Sandy Loam soil should be rich in Potash, Nitrogen, Magnesium, Phosphoric Acid.
► India has 17% of total area under cultivation.
► Variety: Nicotiana Tabaccum and Nicotiana Rustica.
► Flues: Virginia tobacco is procured in special chambers known as Barns with artificial heat passing through metal pipes called Flues. Hence it is known as Flues cured Virginia tobacco.
► Export: second largest exporter after USA.
► Area : Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Maharashtra in the Deccan, Bihar, Orissa, UP, West Bengal.
► Production : Average 1000 leaf/ha Andhra Pradesh largest producer, Guntur heart of tobacco trade.
► Exported to UK, EEU.
► Two important ports : Madras and Kakinada.

Sugarcane (Saccharum Officinarium)
► Belongs to grass family.
► Contains canesugar (Sucrose).
► It is basically a tropical crop.
► Temperature: 20°30°, not above 50°C, not less than 20°C
► Rainfall75cm 120cm.
► Soil clay loams, Alluvial; should be rich in Nitrogen, Phosphoric and Potash.
► Setts : All commercial plantations are made of stalk cuttings of two or three joints.
► Ratoon crops : After the first crop has been cut , the stem begins to grow again.
► Average Yield : 65375 kg/ ha Highest in Tamil Nadu
► Production : UP the largest producer, Bihar, Punjab, Haryana.

Tea (Camellia tea)
► India is the leading producer and leading exporter.
► Varieties: Black tea leaves are dried in the sun and then fermented; Green tea far east China and Japan, there is no fermentation.
► Climate: temp. 13°c and 35°c; rainfall 150250 cm.; protection against long dry weather.
► Soil: Sandy loams are best; iron in soil is beneficial.
► Cultivation : Assam 54.7%; Assam 24.3%; Tamil Nadu9.2%.
► Production: Assam21.48%; W.Bengal21.48%; Tamil Nadu13.32% and Kerala8.34%.
► Export: Britain chief buyer, Russia, USA and Australia.

Coffee (Coffea)
► Oldest among the plantation.
► It is the highland crop of the Tropics.
► Temperature : 15°C 28°C
► Protection : sensitive to cold and frost and to be protected from hot dry winds.
► Sun rays are injurious.
► Varieties : Arabica, Robusta and Coffee Liberica (75%)
► Rainfall 125 cm 200 cm.
► Height of the crop 910 mts.
► Plucking time :Coffee Arabica between Oct.-Nov. ; Coffee Robusta between Jan-Feb.
► Production (state wise) Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil nadu, Andhra pradesh.
► Yield (state wise) Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.

Sesamum (Sesamum Indicum)
► It is both a Kharif crop (N. India) and Rabi (S. India).
► Seed contains 46%52% oil.
► Light and Sandy soils and Black Cotton soils.
► Temperature21°c23"c.
► Rainfall4050cm.
► India produces l/3rd of the total production.
► Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, M.P., Tamil Nadu.

Groundnut (Arachis Hypogea)
► Leading in the world.
► Needs tropical climate.
► Susceptible to frost.
► Khrif Crop (N. India), Rabi (S. India).
► Rainfall50-100cm.
► Sandy Loams.
► Sown in June-July and harvested in four months.
► Deccan Plateau and Gujrat.
► Highest yield in Gujarat.
► Temperature20°c25°c.

Rapeseed and Mustard seed
► Rapeseed is also known as Sarson, Toria and Taramira.
► Mustard seed is also known as Rai.
► It is a Rabi corp.
► Alluvial soil.
► Rainfall2540cm.
► Maturity7590 days.
► Leading producers : U.P.; Rajasthan; Punjab and Haryana.



  1. Manish,
    Thanks for great info, you really provide such a nice info.

    Gaurav Arora

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